The 1974 and 1982 sessions of the National Council for Higher Education and Scientific and Technical Research, presided over by President Ahmadou Ahidjo (Cameroon’s head of state at the time), called for the creation of professional associations and a National Academy of Sciences.

This call was not heeded until 1990 when a group of 12 Cameroonian scientists and scholars met in Douala at the end of the Pan-African Conference on Agriculture and Agricultural Research in Africa, organized by the African Academy of Sciences (AAS), to discuss the possible creation of the Academy.

The influence of the AAS inspired the scientists and scholars attending the conference to give substance to the call first made more than 16 years earlier. Under the leadership of Prof. Victor Anomah Ngu, the 12 scientists held their first meeting on 9 November 1990, and laid the foundation for the Academy.

On 5 January 1991, the constituent assembly of the Academy ratified the decision of the Douala group and adopted the draft statutes. The Cameroon Academy of Sciences (CAS) was formally recognized (Reg. 00701/RDA/Jo6/BAPP) on 29 May 1991 by the Cameroon government in accordance with law No. 90/053 of 19 December 1990, regulating freedom of association.

The Academy was finally inaugurated on 10 February 1993 under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister and head of government, Mr. Simon Achidi Achu. The Academy has 78 members (71 men and 7 women) who are divided into the Colleges of Biological Sciences (39), Mathematical and Physical Sciences (18), Social Sciences (20), and an honorary member(1).

The election of new members occurs every year.